Sterol demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) represent one of the largest groups of systemic fungicides that have been used to control agriculturally important fungal pathogens. Knowledge regarding the evolution of fungicide resistance in agricultural ecosystems is fragmentary and a better understanding of the processes driving the development of DMI resistance in populations of fungal pathogens is needed by plant pathologists and the agrochemical industry. We considered some of these processes using approaches based on molecular population and quantitative genetics. Five Mycosphaerella graminicola populations sampled from unsprayed wheat fields on four continents were assayed for eight restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and their level of tolerance to cyproconazole. DMI fungicides such as cyproconazole inhibit the enzyme eburicol 14-α-demethylase. The gene encoding this target, CYP51, was sequenced for all isolates. We found unimodal, continuous variations in cyproconazole tolerance among the M. graminicola isolates sampled from individual fields, consistent with a polygenic mode of inheritance. We also found that population differentiation for cyproconazole tolerance (QST) among the five M. graminicola populations was significantly higher than the corresponding population differentiation for neutral RFLP markers (GST), suggesting that selection for cyproconazole tolerance in the Swiss population has already led to local adaptation that can be seen even in an unsprayed population. The Swiss population displayed the highest level of tolerance to cyproconazole, in addition to a lower than expected quantitative variation in fungicide tolerance and a skewed distribution, indicating that selection had increased the overall tolerance of this population. Further analysis with DNA sequencing showed that the population from Switzerland was dominated by isolates with several point mutations and a 6-bp deletion in CYP51. This deletion and one of the point mutations were previously related to increased resistance in field isolates. The fungal population from Oregon sampled from an unsprayed resistant host cultivar displayed the same gene diversity in RFLP loci but higher cyproconazole tolerance and quantitative variation in tolerance than the fungal population from the same field sampled from an unsprayed susceptible host cultivar.
Get the PDF-File of this article
Diese Website wird in älteren Versionen von Netscape ohne graphische Elemente dargestellt. Die Funktionalität der Website ist aber trotzdem gewährleistet. Wenn Sie diese Website regelmässig benutzen, empfehlen wir Ihnen, auf Ihrem Computer einen aktuellen Browser zu installieren. Weitere Informationen finden Sie auf
The content in this site is accessible to any browser or Internet device, however, some graphics will display correctly only in the newer versions of Netscape. To get the most out of our site we suggest you upgrade to a newer browser.